Lost Landscapes

Posted on by

By: Robin Waites

In 1961 the Ansley Hall Mansion, the Robert Mills-designed residence at 1616 Blanding Street, was under threat of demolition.  The call to preserve this landmark building turned into a rallying cry that led to the formation of Historic Columbia Foundation.  When we give tours of the property, known today as the Robert Mills House & Gardens, visitors are astounded that this regal, 1820s building was targeted for demolition.  At the time, the potential for new development on this four-acre lot blinded some to the significance of the existing building, which is now a major draw for tourists and a defining feature of local architectural and cultural history.  Unfortunately, many of our character-defining places have not been granted the same reprieve.

Before the adoption of the National Preservation Act in 1966 and subsequent establishment of the local Landmarks Commission (today’s Design Development Review Commission) the demolition of significant buildings went unregulated.  Although review guidelines have been in place for more than 50 years, we still experience the loss, particularly of those structures that may not be perceived as mainstream historic sites.  Over the last decade some of the unique buildings lost in this community include the Richland County Jail (SW corner of Hampton and Lincoln streets, George Elmore’s 5&10 Store (2317 Gervais Street), the Susannah Apartments (NE corner of Hampton and Bull streets), the Abbott Cigar Building (1300 Main Street) and several early 1900s residences along Devine Street.  While perhaps not as iconic as the Robert Mills House, each of these sites represented a time period, building style and/or historic event and provided context to our fast-changing built environment.

Just last week we watched an 100-year-old building on a central commercial corridor fall to the wrecking ball.  The structure at 1401 Assembly (NW corner of Washington and Assembly streets) stood at the entry point to the once-teeming Black Business District that centered around Washington Street.  By 1916, in addition to housing the blacked-owned Regal Drug Store on the first floor, upstairs were offices for two African American physicians and a lawyer, Nathaniel J. Frederick, who was an educator, lawyer, newspaper editor and civil rights activist.  Frederick argued more cases before the Supreme Court of South Carolina than any black lawyer of his day.  The building stood as a touchstone for the story of Frederick and many others, but also as one of fewer than 10 buildings remaining that were part of this early 20th century district.

1401 Assembly 1401_assembly_02 IMG_9534

When we walk through thriving historic districts like the Congaree Vista or Cottontown it is clear that the preservation of our built assets can serve as an economic engine as well as providing context for who we are as a community.  At Historic Columbia, we work actively to gain protections for endangered buildings and districts; however, key partners in this effort must include property owners, developers, real estate professionals, elected officials and the general public who reap the benefits and suffer the blows of the choices made in our built environment. Join our mission to save Columbia’s built history and get involved with Historic Columbia today. Become a member, join our volunteer force, make a donation, attend our events and follow along on social media. Visit historiccolumbia.org to learn how you can get involved.

 

Read more →

Historic Columbia Foundation Offers Guided Walking Tour of Heathwood Neighborhood on Sunday, November 11 at 2 p.m.

Posted on by

Historic Columbia Foundation’s “Second Sunday Strolls” monthly walking tours continue with a guided tour of the historic HeathwoodNeighborhood on Sunday, November 11.

Columbia’s Heathwood neighborhood derives its name from Moses Chappell Heath, who established the community east of the city in the early 20th century. Heathwood is a name associated with land developed by both Heath, starting in 1914, and his son-in-law Burwell Deas Manning, Sr., starting about 1940. The centerpiece of this development was Heathwood Hall, M.C. Heath’s home, which no longer stands. A desirable retreat from downtown Columbia, other families began to build within the newly established subdivision during the 1920s and 1930s.

Join HCF at 2 p.m. for this guided walking tour highlighting the architecture and history of Columbia’s historic Heathwood neighborhood. The tour is free for Historic Columbia Foundation members, $6 for non-member adults and $3 for non-memberyouth (age 17 and under). Tickets can be purchased by calling 803.252.1770 ext. 24 or by email at reservations@historiccolumbia.org. Walk-up registrations are also accepted. The tour will meet at Heathwood Park, 800 Amelia Rd.

###

About Retrace: Connecting Communities Through History: Historic Columbia Foundation invites you to retrace our shared past through its series of webtours, walking tours, mobile apps and wayside exhibits. Explore six virtualtours of Columbia’s historic neighborhoods by clicking on the “Retrace” icon at http://www.historiccolumbia.org. Self-guided tour brochures are available in the Museum Shop, located at 1616 Blanding Street. Your story could be just around the corner.

About Historic Columbia Foundation: In November 1961, a small group of individuals intent on saving the Ainsley Hall House from demolition officially incorporated as the Historic Columbia Foundation. Over the next five decades the organization, which was founded on the premise ofpreservation and education, would take on the stewardship of seven historicproperties in Richland County. Today, the organization serves as a model for local preservation efforts and interpretation of local history. The 50th Anniversary year of Historic Columbia Foundation (which officially began onNovember 13, 2011) will include a variety of community celebratory events. Visit http://www.historiccolumbia.org for details.

Twitter: http://www.twitter.com/histcolumbia
Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/historiccolumbia
Web: http://www.historiccolumbia.org
Youtube: http://www.youtube.com/discoverhistory

Read more →

Guided Bus Tour of Downtown Columbia on Sunday, October 14 at 2 pm

Posted on by

Do you know the history and stories of Columbia’s most popular downtown sites? Join Historic Columbia Foundation for the Second Sunday Roll: Heart of Columbia Bus Tour on Sunday, October 14 at 2 p.m. and enjoy informative and entertaining stories about the Palmetto State’s capital.

This tour highlights a variety of significant sites including the Robert Mills Historic District, the State House, the Governor’s Mansion, the University of South Carolina’s Horseshoe (the original campus), multiple historic churches, Historic Columbia Foundation house museums and the Congaree Vista District.

“View Columbia from a different lens as you retrace our shared past,” says Historic Columbia Foundation Executive Director Robin Waites. “This guided bus tour allows riders a more expansive view of Columbia’s history and architecture.”

Join HCF at 2 pm for this guided bus tour highlighting the architecture and history of Columbia’s central core. The cost for this tour is $5 for Historic Columbia Foundation members and $10 for non-members.  Tickets can be purchased by calling 803.252.1770 ext. 24 or by email at reservations@historiccolumbia.org. The tour will meet at the Robert Mills House & Gardens, 1616 Blanding Street.

About Retrace: Connecting Communities Through History:
Historic Columbia Foundation invites you to retrace our shared past through its series of web tours, walking tours, mobile apps and wayside exhibits. Explore six virtual tours of Columbia’s historic neighborhoods (including Old Shandon) by clicking on the “Retrace” icon at http://www.historiccolumbia.org. Self-guided tour brochures are available in the Museum Shop, located at 1616 Blanding Street. Your story could be just around the corner.

About Historic Columbia Foundation:
In November 1961, a small group of individuals intent on saving the Ainsley Hall House from demolition, officially incorporated as the Historic Columbia Foundation. Over the next five decades, the organization, which was founded on the premise of preservation and education, would take on the stewardship of seven historic properties in Richland County. Today, the organization serves as a model for local preservation efforts and interpretation of local history. The 50th anniversary year of Historic Columbia Foundation (which officially began on November 13, 2011) will include a variety of community celebratory events. Visit http://www.historiccolumbia.org for details.

###

Read more →

Preservation Matters: Columbia, SC | Seeing Green: The Social, Economic and Environmental Impact of an Expanded Urban Greenway

Posted on by

Recognizing recurring themes, interests and initiatives over the course of long periods of time often proves ironic for professional historians and history enthusiasts alike. Perhaps more important is the realization that something endorsed during a bygone era may nonetheless retains its validity within the realm of contemporary affairs among people generations later.

Such is much the case with a treatise supplied by Boston landscape architect Harlan P. Kelsey in 1905 at the behest of the Columbia, South Carolina Civic League. Kelsey’s analysis of the capital city, intended to offer its politically and socially active leaders a road map to successful city planning and urban development, identified steps as central to transforming the state capital into a beautiful, healthy and economically attractive venue for life in the 20th century.

In his suggestions Kelsey did not reinvent the wheel; rather, he sought to build upon Columbia’s existing infrastructure in ways that would yield both short- and long-term improvements. In essence Kelsey’s concepts amounted to a bank in which citizens could invest their energies and finances in ways that would pay dividends immediately and for decades to come.

Kelsey’s first instruction was to establish a comprehensive plan for improvement to avoid small scale, insular improvement projects that would collectively result in a poor product. As he noted at the time, “quite recently  . . . cities have awakened to the urgent need of a systematic plan . . . for parks, playgrounds and boulevard; for sewer, water, lighting and transportation . . . at the most reasonable cost to their citizens.” Fortunately for Columbia, its original planners saw fit to lay out broad avenues along a grid that, while problematic for its placement over less than flat topography, nonetheless lends itself to establishing “a unique, park like effect, enjoyed by no other city . . . in America.”

Interest in claiming (and in some instances reclaiming) aspects of Columbia for greenways therefore, while not being new, nonetheless is enjoying renewed debate. Discussions have involved creating a pedestrian greenway that will join established parks to one another using existing sidewalks and relatively new paths along the Congaree River and downtown rails to trails paths. Integrated into these prescribed greenways would be portions of the Robert Mills Garden District, an area within downtown Columbia that already offers historic structures and landscapes, historical markers and wayside signage, in addition to sidewalk improvements for physically challenged users. Planners envision additions to this existing infrastructure would include historically-inspired street furniture such as light fixtures and benches. Combined, elements new and old would coalesce into a pedestrian linkage system, befitting of Harlan Kelsey’s concepts of what civic improvements can make urban life both pleasant for residents and visitors alike while also being financially profitable in the long run.

Contemporary supporters of greenway enhancements within the city limits no doubt would agree with Kelsey’s assessment that, “With parks and playgrounds so accessible as to be within easy walking reach, the vitality of every man, woman and child who labors will be increased and potentiality in every way enhanced.” Moreover, they would appreciate his considerations as to how such areas should be financed, as his report covers such methods as issuing bonds, increasing tax levies and appropriations by city and state sources. To fully appreciate how Columbians could, and perhaps should, proceed with planning for the future, it behooves us to look to the past for instruction.Kelsey’s sound ideas of 1905 fortunately remain viable enough meet our 21st century needs, if we are bold enough to pursue them.

You Can Get There From Here: A Roadmap to Greening Columbia | Harlan Kelsey’s suggested approach to ensuring the vitality of the capital city through the construction of parks, gardens and pathways still resonates with citizens today. Contemporary planners concepts include a path winding its way through the Robert Mills Historic District, which offers many of the amenities Kelsey called for in his report—fountains, benches and vistas of notable buildings.

A Picture is Worth a Thousand Words | A pilot project involving the “skinning” of traffic light control boxes with historic images within certain intersections within the Robert Mills Historic District was executed by the City of Columbia with assistance from Historic Columbia Foundation. Now, formerly unattractive silver monolithic protrusions serve as the basis of eye-catching graphics that help orient passersby.

HCF Walking Tours – Stretch Your Minds While You Stretch Your Legs | Launched in 2009, Historic Columbia Foundation’s Robert Mills Historic District walking tours have been well-received by people who live, work and visit the National Register of Historic Places-listed neighborhood.

History on Every Block | Central to the establishment of successful green spaces and pathways within the Robert Mills Historic District has been the inclusion of wayside interpretive signage that highlights the history of important people, places and events, as well as horticulture.

The More Things Change the More They Stay the Same | Calls for streetscape improvements during the early 20th century mimic those one hundred years later. On the top of planners’ concerns during the City Beautiful movement of the early 1900s, and frequently discussed in contemporary planning is the placement of shade trees of differing varieties to ensure protection against species-specific diseases and the location of conveniences such as sidewalks.

Read more →

Historic Columbia Foundation Offers Guided Walking Tour of Old Shandon Neighborhood on Sunday, August 12 at 2 p.m.

Posted on by

Do you know the history of Old Shandon in Columbia, South Carolina? Covering approximately 37 acres, this district features 42 buildings of architectural merit representative of housing styles and forms popular from 1893 through the 1940s. Early suburban life in this Columbia neighborhood proved a major attraction for inner-city professionals and their families as early as 1893. Life close todowntown amenities and work but within new homes situated on more spacious lots spoke to a more modern lifestyle that lured Columbia residents outside the city’s limits. With the extension of the trolley line in 1894 into Valley Park and along Devine and Maple streets in 1898, greater numbers of former downtown citizens established themselves within the new community.

On Sunday, August 12 at 2 p.m.; Historic Columbia Foundation is offering a guided walking tour highlighting the architecture and history of this historic neighborhood.  A free tour for Historic Columbia Foundation members, the cost is just $6 for non-member adults and $3 for non-member youth (17 and under).  Tickets can be purchased by calling 803.252.1770 ext. 24 or by email at reservations@historiccolumbia.org.  Walk-up registrations are also accepted – the tour will meet at the Wheatley Branch of Richland County Public Library (931 Woodrow Street).

More about Old Shandon:
In their 1895 map of Columbia and its suburbs, city engineers Niernsee & LaMotte indicated Shandon’s original boundaries as Woodrow, Wheat, and Harden streets and Carolina Avenue (now Santee Avenue). Today’s Old Shandon area covers those blocks of the suburb that lay northeast of Devine Street, in addition to the area southeast of Woodrow Street that became Maple Street.  In 2003, Old Shandon residents supported listing the portion of their neighborhood bounded by Woodrow, Cypress, Maple, Lee, and Preston streets within the National Register of Historic Places as the Old Shandon Historic District.

Historic Columbia Foundation posted a video of Geneva Johnson Maxberry reflecting on the sense of community in Old Shandon: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xfP-_s4OVdc&feature=player_embedded.

About this month’s Second Sunday Stroll, Robin Waites, Executive Director of Historic Columbia Foundation says “View Columbia from a different lens as you retrace our shared past on a guided walking tour of Old Shandon.”  Members of the media are encouraged to contact Ashley Tucker, Marketing Coordinator, for historic photographs and questions about Old Shandon at 803.252.7742 ext 16 or atucker@historiccolumbia.org.

About Retrace: Connecting Communities Through History:
Historic Columbia Foundation invites you to retrace our shared past through its series of web tours, walking tours, mobile apps and wayside exhibits. Explore six virtual tours of Columbia’s historic neighborhoods (including Old Shandon) by clicking on the “Retrace” icon at http://www.historiccolumbia.org. Self-guided tour brochures are available in the Museum Shop, located at 1616 Blanding Street. Your story could be just around the corner.

About Historic Columbia Foundation:
In November 1961, a small group of individuals intent on saving the Ainsley Hall House from demolition, officially incorporated as the Historic Columbia Foundation. Over the next five decades the organization, which was founded on the premise of preservation and education, would take on the stewardship of seven historic properties in Richland County. Today, the organization serves as a model for local preservation efforts and interpretation of local history. The 50th Anniversary year of Historic Columbia Foundation (which officially began on November 13, 2011) will include a variety of community celebratory events. Visit http://www.historiccolumbia.org for details.

Twitter: http://www.twitter.com/histcolumbia
Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/historiccolumbia
Web: http://www.historiccolumbia.org
Youtube: http://www.youtube.com/discoverhistory

###

Read more →

Historic Columbia Foundation Offers Guided Walking Tour of Arsenal Hill Neighborhood on Sunday, June 10 at 2 p.m.

Posted on by

COLUMBIA, SC (May 24, 2012) – Do you know the history of the Arsenal Hill neighborhood in Columbia, South Carolina? Named for the military academy established here in 1842, Arsenal Hill rests within the northwest section of Columbia’s original two-mile-by-two-mile city limits. Traditionally, this 30-block area has been bounded by Upper (today Elmwood Avenue), Assembly, Taylor, and Huger streets.

On Sunday, June 10 at 2 p.m.; Historic Columbia Foundation is offering a guided walking tourhighlighting the architecture and history of this historic neighborhood.  A free tour for Historic Columbia Foundation members, the cost is just $6 for non-member adults and $3 for non-member youth (17 and under).  Tickets can be purchased at http://historiccolumbia.org, by calling 803.252.1770 ext. 24 or by email at reservations@historiccolumbia.org.  Walk-up registrations are also accepted – the tour will meet at Palmetto Armory and Ironworks (1900 Lincoln Street).

More about Arsenal Hill:
As the highest point within the capital city’s downtown, with impressive vistas to the south and west, Arsenal Hill became a desirable residential area for white elites during the antebellum era and then for middle- and working-class African Americans during the later 19th and 20th centuries. Combined with this residential development soon after came industrial, commercial, spiritual, educational, and governmental institutions, all of which have resulted in an eclectic mix of architecture and community histories.

About this month’s Second Sunday Stroll, Robin Waites, Executive Director of Historic Columbia Foundation says “View Columbia from a different lens as you retrace our shared past on a guided walking tour of Arsenal Hill.”  Members of the media are encouraged to contact Ashley Tucker at 803.252.7742 ext. 16 or atucker@historiccolumbia.org.

About Retrace: Connecting Communities Through History:
Historic Columbia Foundation invites you to retrace our shared past through its series of web tours, walking tours, mobile apps and wayside exhibits. Explore six virtual tours of Columbia’s historic neighborhoods (including Arsenal Hill) by clicking on the “Retrace” icon at http://www.historiccolumbia.org. Self-guided tour brochures are available in the Museum Shop, located at 1616 Blanding Street. Your story could be just around the corner.

About Historic Columbia Foundation:
In November 1961, a small group of individuals intent on saving the Ainsley Hall House from demolition, officially incorporated as the Historic Columbia Foundation. Over the next five decades the organization, which was founded on the premise of preservation and education, would take on the stewardship of seven historic properties in Richland County. Today, the organization serves as a model for local preservation efforts and interpretation of local history. The 50th Anniversary year of Historic Columbia Foundation (which officially began on November 13, 2011) will include a variety of community celebratory events. Visithttp://www.historiccolumbia.org for details.

Twitter: http://www.twitter.com/histcolumbia
Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/historiccolumbia
Web: http://www.historiccolumbia.org
Youtube: http://www.youtube.com/discoverhistory

###

Read more →

Kick-Off Your Weekend With Some Famously Hot History at HCF's Happy Hour Tours of Main Street

Posted on by

Historic Columbia Foundation Happy hour history tours

Gather your friends and colleagues and start your weekend off with some famously hot Main Street history. Historic Columbia Foundation is celebrating Preservation Month this May with a series of Friday evening Happy Hour History Tours of Main Street.

THIS Friday (and every Friday in May), at 5:30 p.m., HCF will gather at the SC Statehouse and kick off a guided walking tour of Main Street highlighting some of Columbia’s landmark buildings. The tour highlights a variety of buildings including Union Nation Bank, The Sheraton, Sylvans, Tapps and many more.

In addition to the famously hot history, guests will enjoy two complementary beverage sand appetizers along the way. Tickets are just $25 for the general public and $20 for HCF members. Reserve your spot today by calling 803.252.1770 ext 24. Walk ups are welcome.

To check out photos from last week’s tour, click here.

Read more →

Historic Columbia Foundation Offers Guided Walking Tour of Congaree Vista on Sunday, April 15 at 2 p.m.

Posted on by

COLUMBIA, SC (April 12, 2012) – Historic Columbia Foundation’s “Second Sunday Strolls” monthly walking tours continue, this month taking place in Columbia’s historic Congaree Vista. Due to the Easter holiday, this month’s stroll will take place on Sunday, April 15, 2012.  The tour begins at 2 pm, meeting at the corner of Gervais and Assembly Streets.   A free tour for Historic Columbia Foundation members, the cost is just $6 for non-member adults and $3 for non-member youth (17 and under).  Tickets can be purchased at http://historiccolumbia.org, by calling 803.252.1770 ext. 24 or by email at reservations@historiccolumbia.org.  Walk-up registrations are also accepted – those interested should meet at the corner of Gervais and Assembly Streets.

Intersection of Gervias & Assembly Streets, Historic Columbia Foundation Collection

Historically a residential, light industrial, mercantile, and transportation district, the Congaree Vista comprises almost 800 acres.  Bounded by the Congaree River to the west and Assembly Street to the east, this portion of South Carolina’s capital city features a mixture of historically significant buildings with architecturally sympathetic re-development and infill projects.  The product of considerable capital investment beginning in the 1970s, the Vista today features loft, apartment, and townhouse residences, restaurants and bars, specialty shops, and offices.  Officially referred to as the West Gervais Street Historic District, the Congaree Vista is listed in the National Register of Historic Places and is protected as an architectural conservation district by the City of Columbia.

1314 Lincoln Street

Luther Lee Building, 1314 Lincoln Street, Image couresty Laura Guobaitis

Historic images of the Congaree Vista are posted on the Foundation’s Flickr page, available for immediate download for members of the media here: http://www.flickr.com/photos/historiccolumbiafoundation/sets/72157629435856218/.

About Retrace: Connecting Communities Through History: Historic Columbia Foundation invites you to retrace our shared past through its series of web tours, walking tours, mobile apps and wayside exhibits. Explore six virtual tours of Columbia’s historic neighborhoods by clicking on the “Retrace” icon at http://www.historiccolumbia.org. Self-guided tour brochures are available in the Museum Shop, located at 1616 Blanding Street. Your story could be just around the corner.

Motor Supply Company

Motor Supply Company, 922-924 Gervais Street, Image courtesy City of Columbia Planning Department; E. Grenville Seibels, II, Photographer

About Historic Columbia Foundation: In November 1961, a small group of individuals intent on saving the Ainsley Hall House from demolition, officially incorporated as the Historic Columbia Foundation. Over the next five decades the organization, which was founded on the premise of preservation and education, would take on the stewardship of seven historic properties in Richland County. Today, the organization serves as a model for local preservation efforts and interpretation of local history. The 50th Anniversary year of Historic Columbia Foundation (which officially began on November 13, 2011) will include a variety of community celebratory events. Visit http://www.historiccolumbia.orgfor details.

Twitter: http://www.twitter.com/histcolumbia

Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/historiccolumbia

Web: http://www.historiccolumbia.org

Youtube: http://www.youtube.com/discoverhistory

###

Read more →

Free African-American Heritage Sites Bus Tour Offered by Historic Columbia Foundation and “One Month, One Columbia” On Saturday, April 14, 2012

Posted on by

COLUMBIA, SC (April 6, 2012) – Historic Columbia Foundation in partnership with “One Month, One Columbia” is offering a complimentary African-American Heritage Sites bus tour, called “Home Places, Work Places, Resting Places” on Saturday, April 14 at 12 pm, 12:30 pm, 2 pm and 2:30 pm.  Those interested in taking this free 90-minute bus tour are encouraged to register online at http://www.onecolumbiasc.com/onemonth/african_american_heritage_tour/ as the program (covering more than 25 sites) is expected to fill up quickly. On the day of the tour, attendees will meet at the Greek Orthodox Church on 1931 Sumter Street, where parking will also be available.

“Home Places, Work Places, Resting Places” Tour Sites Include:
· Zion Baptist Church
· Victory Saving Bank
· The South Carolina State House
· The Big Apple
· Richard Samuel Roberts House
· Randolph Cemetery
· Benedict College
· Allen University/ Chappelle Hall
· Mann-Simons Site
· Good Samaritan-Waverly Hospital
· Carver Theatre
· Modjeska Monteith Simkins House
· Leevy’s Funeral Home
· Township Auditorium

About the program, John Sherrer, Director of Cultural Resources at Historic Columbia Foundation says, “Since its creation in 1786, Columbia has featured a large African-American population whose labor, skills and vision have been integral in the city’s physical, spiritual and social evolution.”  Sherrer goes on to say, “We invite you to take this journey with us as we share the story of Columbia’s African-American community as they overcame the restrictions of Jim Crow and charted the course of the Civil Rights era.”

About One Columbia for Arts & History
One Columbia for Arts & History is a non-profit organization formed to support and promote tourism in Columbia, South Carolina. Their mission is to advise, amplify and advocate for the unified arts and history community. They work to promote collaboration through shared celebrations of Columbia’s arts and historic treasures with the goal of raising the quality of life for Columbia’s citizens, attracting tourist dollars to the city, and further enhancing vibrant downtown. More information can be found at http://www.onecolumbiasc.com.

About Historic Columbia Foundation:
In November 1961, a small group of individuals intent on saving the Ainsley Hall House from demolition officially incorporated as the Historic Columbia Foundation. Over the next five decades the organization, which was founded on the premise of preservation and education, would take on the stewardship of seven historic properties in Richland County. Today, the organization serves as a model for local preservation efforts and interpretation of local history. The 50th Anniversary year of Historic Columbia Foundation (which officially began on November 13, 2011) will include a variety of community celebratory events. Visit http://www.historiccolumbia.org for details.

Twitter: http://www.twitter.com/histcolumbia
Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/historiccolumbia
Web: http://www.historiccolumbia.org
Youtube: http://www.youtube.com/discoverhistory

###

Read more →